These Terms and Conditions govern your relationship with DNA Plan LTD (registered under company number 11225404, with its registered office at 2nd Floor, 5 High Street, Bristol BS9 3BY.
In order to use any DNA Plan Ltd service, you must agree to these Terms and Conditions. This is a legal contract that affects your rights and responsibilities. Please read this document carefully.
“The DNA Plan” means DNA Plan Ltd.
“Consent” means your express written consent granting The DNA Plan’s permission to collect your Personal Information from your DNA swab sample, which may be used potentially for research purposes.
“Personal Information” is information about an individual, which includes information that can be used to identify you. The DNA Plan acquires and retains the following types of Personal Information:
“Genetic Data and Information” – is data related to your genotype, which is determined through the analysis of your saliva by The DNA Plan.
“Registration Information” is the personal information you provide when registering and/or purchasing our Services.
“Self-Reported Information” is your personal information, including medical conditions, ethnicity, family history, and other information that you enter into the surveys, forms, or features while using The DNA Plan website. Self-Reported information is only used for potential research purposes if you indicate on the website that it can be used for research and you have provided consent through our Consent Document.
“Services” means The DNA Plan’s products, services, and website (including graphics, text, images, and other information provided by email or displayed on the website).
Your use of The DNA Plan’s Services is subject to the terms defined in these Terms and Conditions (“T&Cs”). These T&Cs apply to any use of The DNA Plan’s Services, including:
submitting a saliva sample for DNA extraction and analysis;
providing a digital version of your genetic data and interpreting the analysed data and information on The DNA Plan website; and
registering at The DNA Plan without completing a saliva sample or genetic data.
To use The DNA Plan Services, you must first agree to the T&Cs. You cannot use the Services if you do not accept the T&Cs. Your continued use of the Services, including use of The DNA Plan website, shall mean you accept the T&Cs.
Some of the Services (both existing and new) may be subject to additional terms and/or conditions. When you first use such Services, The DNA Plan will bring this to your attention. The additional terms for such Services are subject to revision or change, like the T&Cs. When any such changes are made, we will bring these to your attention.
Before you can provide genetic information you must be (a) at least 18 years of age regardless of permission from parents or guardians and (b) lawfully able to use the Service under the laws where you reside.
The Services include access to The DNA Plan website and its personal genetic services, which include the collection, extraction, and analysis of your Genetic Data and Information. Unless stated otherwise, each new feature that is added to the current Services will be subject to the T&Cs. You accept and agree that the Services are provided as stipulated and are based on the current position of genetic research and technology used by The DNA Plan when using the Services.
Scientific research is continually progressing and genetic technology is always changing, therefore, The DNA Plan is always evolving and aims to provide the most current information to its users. You agree that the Services might change from time to time without any prior notice. As part of this continuing evolution of science, you accept and agree that The DNA Plan may stop (permanently or temporarily) providing some Services (or features within the Services) to its users without prior notice.
You can stop using the Services at any time. You do not need to inform The DNA Plan when you stop using the Services. The DNA Plan does not have any responsibility for the use of the Services outside the T&Cs stated terms or any other terms that apply.
In order to make use of the Services, you must be able to access the internet, directly or through devices that have access to the worldwide web, and you must pay any outside service fees related to this access. You must supply the equipment required to connect to the internet, including a computer and a modem or another access device. You agree that while The DNA Plan does not have a fixed upper limit on the number of transmissions you send or receive through the Services, or the amount of storage space used for providing any Service, this fixed upper limit may be set by The DNA Plan at any time at its own discretion.
Limitations of Genetic Data and Information: Genetic Data and Information provides a limited insight into your weight management and health. It is only one aspect of your health and weight management and should not be supposed to be conclusive.
Learning about your Genetic Data and Information may not suitable for you. In some instances your Genetic Data and Information may provide knowledge and data that is not positive. You should not assume that any information we provide will be positive. You should also understand that as scientific research advances, you might need to obtain additional services from your physician or health care provider, in order to assess and understand the meaning of your DNA now and in light of new scientific information. In many cases, the analysis of your genetic data and information is based on associations between certain genetic markers and different characteristics. Genetic information cannot provide you with conclusive information about the interaction between certain genes and environmental factors, which can significantly change a particular outcome.
You should not alter your health behaviours purely based on the information provided to you by The DNA Plan. Make sure you discuss your Genetic Data and Information with a physician or health care provider before you act upon the dat or any recommendations provided by The DNA Plan. For most common conditions, individual genetic markers are only responsible for a small fraction of the risk factors. There are other factors, such as other (potentially unknown) genetic markers, environmental factors and lifestyle choices, which may be more important predictors for diseases.
If your data tells you that you do not have an increased risk for a certain condition, you should not assume that you will not develop this condition. By the same token, if your Genetic Data and Information tells you that you are at an increased risk for a certain condition, it does not mean that you will develop this condition. If you have concerns or questions regarding any of this, you should contact your doctor or another health care provider.
Overall, genetic research is not complete. The DNA Plan measures many points of information in your DNA, but only a small percentage of them relate to human traits. The scientific community is still learning about genetics and one of The DNA Plan’s aims is to contribute to this research. Additionally, many ethnic groups differ or are not included at all in many genetic studies. Similarly, some scientific studies may be based solely on research of one gender. As our services interpret your Genetic Data and Information based on scientific published studies, some of the interpretations that we provide as part of the Services may not apply to you. In addition, future research on Genetic Data and Information may change how your DNA is interpreted by The DNA Plan.
The Genetic Data and Information that you disclose to other people can be used against your best interests. Therefore, you should be careful when disclosing your Genetic Data and Information. Currently, few businesses or companies request Genetic Data and Information, but this may change. You may want to talk to a solicitor to understand the legal considerations surrounding your Genetic Data and Information before you disclose it to anybody.
Additionally, Genetic Data and Information that you share with your doctor or health care provider can become part of your medical records and potentially may be accessed by third-party health care providers or insurance companies. Your Genetic Data and Information may have limited implications today, but this information may well have more significance in the future.
The Services are for research, informational and educational use only. No medical advice is provided. The Genetic Data and Information reported has not been clinically validated. The technology used by The DNA Plan, which is also used by the research community, has not been used for clinical testing. In order to increase the understanding and the applications of genetic knowledge for clinical use, we provide all users of The DNA Plan the opportunity to contribute to genetic research. Participation in such research is voluntary. In order to participate, you will be asked to agree to our consent document on the website (www.dnaplan.co.uk). Our services are only used for research, informational, and educational means and are not to be used by the user as diagnostic tools and should not be a substitute for professional medical advice. You should always ask the advice from your doctor or health care provider regarding any questions that you have regarding diagnosis, cure, or prevention of any disease or condition.
The DNA Plan does not guarantee the efficacy of a specified course of action, opinions, or other information that may be mentioned on The DNA Plan website or in the Client Report an individual receives once we have interpreted their genetic data. If we provide you with recommendations that may work for you based on your genetic data and Self-Reported Information, this information should be seen as intended for informational purposes. This information can also be utilised in discussion with your doctor or health care provider.
The DNA Plan would like to remind you that:
(i) genetics is not the full picture of someone’s current or future state of being;
(ii) the understanding of Genetic Data and Information is constantly evolving and there are still many things to discover and understand;
(iii) only a doctor or health care provider can assess health or conditions, considering many factors, including your Genetic Data and Information and your presenting symptoms.
Genetic Data and Information is subject to significant limitations and you rely on information provided by The DNA Plan and others featuring on our website at your own risk.
The DNA Plan’s laboratory may not be able to process your sample and/or the analysis may result in errors. The laboratory may not be able to process your sample if your saliva sample does not contain enough DNA volume, you do not provide enough saliva, or the results do not meet the quality and accuracy standards required.
If the laboratory processing fails because of any of these reasons, you have one of two options:
The DNA Plan may process the same saliva sample without any extra charge to you. If the second attempt fails, you will be entitled to a refund; or
you may opt for a full refund of the amounts paid to The DNA Plan.
Despite established standards for the processing of saliva samples, due to reasons beyond our reasonable control, it is sometimes impossible to interpret or correctly process and assess data during the laboratory process (referred as an “Error” or “Errors”). As Errors are beyond our reasonable control, if an Error occurs, you will not be entitled to a refund.
By accessing the Services, you agree to, acknowledge, and represent, the below:
(i) You understand that the information you obtain from The DNA Plan is not designed to diagnose, prevent, or treat any medical conditions
(ii) You understand that The DNA Plan services are only for research, informational, and educational purposes and that while information provided by The DNA Plan might suggest an inclination towards a particular illness or health condition, or point to a possible diagnosis or treatment, you should not rely on such estimates and should always seek advice from a doctor or health care professional. The DNA Plan does not provide any medical advice or treatment.
(iii) You understand that The DNA Plan urges you to obtain the advice of your health care providers or your doctor if you have questions or concerns regarding your Genetic Data and Information.
(iv) You give your Consent to The DNA Plan, its contractors, successors and assignees to perform genetic services on the DNA extracted from the saliva sample you provide. You also give your Consent to The DNA Plan to disclose your DNA analysis results to you and to other people that you may specifically authorise.
(v) You confirm that you are above the age of majority in the jurisdiction in which you reside, and, at least, 18 years of age, if you provide a saliva sample and or instruct us to access your Genetic Data and Information.
(vi) You guarantee that the sample you provide is coming from your saliva; and if you are agreeing to these T&Cs on behalf of someone else from whom you have legal authorisation, you guarantee that the sample provided belongs to that person and you have legal authority to act on that person’s behalf.
(vii) If you are providing your saliva sample from a place outside the United Kingdom, you confirm that this action is not subject to any export ban or restriction in the country where you live.
(viii)You acknowledge that any saliva sample that you provide and its resulting information can be transferred and/or processed outside the country where you live.
(ix) you confirm that you do not represent an insurance company and are not trying to obtain information about an insured person or an employee.
(x) you acknowledge that some data and information you receive can result in strong reactions.
(xi) you are responsible for all of the consequences resulting from sharing your Genetic Data and Information and Self-Reported Information with other people.
(xiii) You acknowledge that by providing a sample, having your Genetic Data and Information analysed, accessing your Genetic Data and Information, or providing information about yourself, you do not have any proprietary or other rights in any research or products that might be developed by The DNA Plan or its partners. You understand that you will not benefit in any way from research or from products resulting from your Genetic Data and Information or Self-Reported Information.
You agree that you have the authority; under the laws of the jurisdiction in which you reside, to make these representations. In case you breach any of these representations or breach these T&Cs, The DNA Plan will have the right to terminate your account and refuse the future use of The DNA Plan Services and you will indemnify and hold harmless The DNA Plan and its affiliates against any liability or damages that may arise in case these T&Cs are breached.
In return for your use of the Services, you agree to: (i) provide accurate and current registration information about yourself as required by the Services; and (ii) maintain and update your registration information to keep it accurate and current. If you provide information that is inaccurate or not current, or if The DNA Plan suspects that your registration information is inaccurate and not current, The DNA Plan has the right to refuse any current or future use of the Services.
You acknowledge and accept that The DNA Plan personnel can and may monitor the use of its systems and can keep copies of such monitoring.
You acknowledge that the content from the Services available to you, whether it is original content from the Services or sponsored Services content, is protected by copyright and intellectual property rights owned by The DNA Plan and/or the sponsors who provide the content (or other people or companies on their behalf). The DNA Plan does not grant you permission to share any of the content unless expressly stated otherwise. You may not modify, lease, sell, distribute or create works based on the Services content unless you have been told you can do so by The DNA Plan or by the content owners in a separate written contract or agreement.
You confirm that you will not use the Services for any unlawful or prohibited purposes. You are prohibited from using the Services in any way that could harm or damage the Services, or hinder another individual’s use of the Services. You cannot try to or obtain any information through any way that is not made available explicitly through the Service.
Furthermore, you consent to not use the Services to:
violate any municipal, provincial, national or international law, or any regulations within the law;
upload, post or share any content that infringes any patent, trademark, or proprietary rights of The DNA Plan and other parties;
upload, post or share any content that you cannot broadcast under any law;
use information that you receive through the Services to try and identify or contact other customers;
download any files that are shared by other users that you are aware that you cannot distribute legally;
upload, post or share any material that is obscene, offensive, or that is discriminatory based on race, colour, origin, sexual orientation, sex, gender, age or other status;
impersonate another person, including anyone affiliated to The DNA Plan, or misrepresent your affiliation with someone else;
add your own headers or manipulate identifiers to disguise the origin of any content that is shared through the Service;
“stalk” or harass someone else;
harm minors in any way;
advertise, buy or sell any goods or services for business purposes, unless The DNA Plan provides part of the Services to allow you to do so;
upload, post or share any unauthorised advertising, such as “junk mail” or “spam”
upload, post or share any information that contains viruses or any other codes, files or programs used to destroy or damage the functioning of a computer or hardware equipment;
use software, devices or services to interact with the Services or The DNA Plan servers unless explicitly permitted by The DNA Plan;
engage in “framing” or simulating the function of The DNA Plan website;
override, or attempt to override, security components in The DNA Plan web services;
interfere or disrupt the Services, networks, or users that are connected to the Services, or disobey any requirements, policies, or regulations of networks that are connected to the Service; or
violate the Terms of Service, codes of conducts, or any other applicable guidelines that apply to the area of Service or have been communicated to you by anyone from The DNA Plan.
Additionally, you agree that you will abide by all applicable laws and regulations in your use of the Services and specifically that you will not violate any applicable export control rules. In addition, you agree that you will not do anything that would cause The DNA Plan to violate any such statute, regulation or rule.
You recognise and confirm that you are responsible for (and that The DNA Plan has no responsibility to you or someone else for) any violation of your obligations under the T&Cs and for the consequences that the violations might have, including any damage that The DNA Plan might suffer. In case of any agreement violation, The DNA Plan has the right to suspend or terminate your account and refuse any future Service use and you will indemnify The DNA Plan and its affiliates against any costs or damages that might arise from the violations.
If you violate any of the terms found on this Section, or The DNA Plan suspects that you violated the terms on this Section, The DNA Plan has the right to suspend or terminate your registration and refuse future use of the Services.
Additionally, The DNA Plan will not control any of the user content that is posted through the Service and The DNA Plan does not guarantee the accuracy or quality of the any user content or other outside content not provided by The DNA Plan. You acknowledge that using the Services may expose you to offensive and indecent content. Under no circumstance can The DNA Plan be held responsible for any user content or outside content, including errors in such content, loss, or damage as a result of the content posted or shared through the Service.
You understand that The DNA Plan has the right, but not the obligation, to review, modify, pre-screen or refuse any content that is available through the Services. The DNA Plan and its employees, subcontractors or agents have the right to remove any content that is violating the T&Cs at The DNA Plan’s own discretion. You agree to evaluate and understand all of the risks associated with content use, including accuracy or usefulness of the content.
The DNA Plan does not claim ownership of any content that you create and share with The DNA Plan. Unless otherwise stated, you retain copyright and other rights already possessed by you over content that you create and share on or through the Services. However, by creating and sharing content, you give The DNA Plan a conclusive license to reproduce, adapt, modify, publish, and distribute derivative works from any content created and shared by you through the Services. You understand and accept that this license gives The DNA Plan right to make the content that you create and share on or through the Services available to other companies, organizations or individuals that have relationships with The DNA Plan and use such content in connection with these services.
You acknowledge that while performing required technical steps to provide Services to users, The DNA Plan may distribute your content over several public networks and media and also make necessary changes to your content that are necessary to conform and adapt to the requirements of networks, services or media. You understand and accept that this license can permit The DNA Plan to take these actions. You give this right and power to The DNA Plan in order to benefit from the license stipulated here.
Once you submit your saliva sample and The DNA Plan has analysed it, the sample is irreversibly processed and it cannot be returned to you. See the website for more information regarding sample processing. Any genetic data and information taken from your saliva sample remains your property but is subject to the rights that are expressed in these T&Cs. You acknowledge that you should not expect any type of financial benefit from The DNA Plan from having your genetic data and information (including Self-Reported Information) processed or shared with research partners, including commercial partners.
Property Rights Disclaimer – You acknowledge that by providing any saliva sample, having your Genetic Data and Information analysed, accessing your Genetic Data and Information, or sharing Self-Reported Information, you have no rights at all in any potential products that may be developed by or any third party. You accept that you will not receive any compensation for research or commercial products that result from your Genetic Data and Information or Self-Reported Information.
You consent to defend and hold harmless The DNA Plan and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, agents, contractors, partners, employees, successors, and assigns from any claims, including attorney’s fees, made by any third party as a result of:
any content you submit or share through the Service;
your Service use;
your Service connection;
your breach of these T&Cs; or
violation(s) of any other laws.
Furthermore, if you wish to provide your Genetic Data and Information and Self-Reported Information to third parties, you agree to indemnify The DNA Plan, its employees, contractors, successors, and assigns from any liability resulting from such disclosure of your Genetic Data and Information and Self-Reported Information.
Other than pursuant to Section 9 of these T&Cs, you agree not to distribute, publish, copy, create, sell or share parts or all of the Services, the use of the Services or access to the Services for any commercial purposes.
You understand that The DNA Plan may establish practices and limits concerning Service uses, such as the maximum number of days that Personal Information and Services content are retained by the Service, the maximum disk space allowed on the Services. You understand and accept that The DNA Plan has no responsibility or liability for the deletion of messages or content maintained or shared by the Services; or for the loss of Genetic Data and Information because of the malfunction of data servers or other events. You also should understand that The DNA Plan has the right to change these practices and limits at its own discretion.
The DNA Plan has the right to modify or discontinue the Services at any time with or without any prior notice. You understand and accept that (i) modifications can result in a computational delay from some of The DNA Plan’s features or Services, and (ii) The DNA Plan cannot be liable to you or any third party for any modification or discontinuation of the Services.
You understand that The DNA Plan may offer different or additional software or features to analyse your Genetic Data and Information in the future and that your initial purchase does not necessarily allow you to obtain additional technologies or features to analyse your Genetic Data and Information without an additional fee. You may have to pay additional fee to have your Genetic Data and Information collected and analysed using additional technologies or features.
The T&Cs will apply until The DNA Plan or you terminate your obligations as described in this Section.
If you wish to terminate your legal agreement with The DNA Plan, you can do so by providing a written notice to The DNA Plan. Your notice should be written and sent to The DNA Plan’s customer service email address ([email protected]). If you send the notice via email, The DNA Plan will reply with an email to confirm acknowledgment of your notice.
The DNA Plan can terminate its legal agreement with you at any time, if:
you violate any provision of the T&Cs or act in a way that shows you cannot comply with the provisions of the T&Cs;
The DNA Plan is required to do so by law;
one of the partners that offered the Services terminates its relationships with The DNA Plan or stops offering the Services to you;
The DNA Plan no longer plans to provide Services to users in your country of residence or where you use the Services; or
the Service provided to you by The DNA Plan is, in The DNA Plan’s opinion, no longer commercially viable.
Any suspected illegal activity can be grounds for terminating your Service use and can be referred to the appropriate law enforcement authorities. You understand that The DNA Plan will not be liable to you or any third party for terminating Service use.
A termination of the T&Cs will not affect any existing obligations of the user to The DNA Plan, nor will it affect any rights or remedies of the parties that have accrued up to the termination.
Your correspondence or business dealings through promotions, vendors, and other resources found on the Services – including payment and shipping of goods and services and any other terms and conditions associated with such dealings – are exclusively between you and such providers. You agree that The DNA Plan cannot be held responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulted from these dealings or as a result of this information provided on the Services.
The DNA Plan supplies and additionally, third parties can also supply, hyperlinks to other websites and resources on the Internet. The DNA Plan has no control over these websites. Therefore, you acknowledge and consent to The DNA Plan not being held responsible or liable for any damage or loss caused by or in connection to the use of this content that might be available through the hyperlinks.
You acknowledge and agree that The DNA Plan owns all the legal rights and interests to the Services, including intellectual property rights (including patents) that subsist in the Services. You also understand that the Services can contain information deemed as confidential by The DNA Plan and you cannot disclose this information without The DNAPlan’s permission and written consent.
Additionally, you agree that the Services, and any other software used for the Services, contain information that is both confidential and proprietary and is protected by intellectual property laws. You also acknowledge that the information provided to you through our Services is protected by copyrights, trademarks, patents and other proprietary laws.
Except as authorised by The DNA Plan, you accept to not adapt, produce or sell works derived of any material originating from services of The DNA Plan.
All of the software that can be downloaded through the Services is copyrighted. Your software use is governed by the terms of the license agreement, which is included with the software (“License Agreement”). You shall not try to install or use any software that has a License Agreement without first agreeing to the License Agreement terms.
The DNA Plan logos, products and service names are The DNA Plan trademarks and these trademarks along with any other The DNA Plan trade names, logos and brand features are “The DNA Plan Marks.” Unless you have agreed otherwise by written consent with The DNA Plan, other than through the Limited License in Section 9, nothing in the T&Cs gives you the right to use The DNA Plan Marks and you should agree not to expose or use in any way The DNA Plan Marks. You accept that you cannot and will not remove, obscure or alter any proprietary rights notices including copyright and trade mark notices that might be contained within the Services. Unless you have been authorised through writing by The DNA Plan you agree not to use any trademarks, trade names or logos of any company or organization through the Services in a way that is intended to cause confusion about such marks, names and logos.
For any software that does not have a License Agreement, The DNA Plan grants you a personal, non-transferable right and license to use the code of such software on one computer. You cannot allow a third party to copy, modify, or create a derivative work through reverse engineering, or attempt to discover any code or transfer any right in the software unless it is permitted by law or unless you have been given written permission by The DNA Plan.
This license is allowed solely for the purpose of allowing you to use and enjoy the Services pursuant to the T&Cs. Unless The DNA Plan has given you specific written permission, you cannot assign your rights to use the software, grant a security interest over the software or transfer any part of your rights to use the Software. You agree not to modify the software in any way or form or use modified versions of the software, including for the purpose of obtaining prohibited access to the Services. You agree not to access the Services through other means except through the interface provided by The DNA Plan. Any rights that are not granted here are reserved.
You understand and accept the below:
You use the Services at your own risk. The DNA Plan disclaims all warranties to the extent permitted by law.
The DNA Plan makes no warranty that:
(i) the Services will meet your requirements;
(ii) the analysis and results derived from the Services will be correct;
(iii) the Services will be entirely error-free or completely secure; and
(iv) any software will be defect or error free.
Material downloaded or acquired through the Services is at your own risk. You are completely responsible for any impairment associated with your device or computer, or loss of any data that could occur from data downloading.
No advice acquired from The DNA Plan should create a warranty that is not clearly stipulated in the T&Cs.
Always be vigilant and careful in imparting any information about yourself. The DNA Plan does not control third parties who you may divulge your information to through the use of the website and services. The DNA Plan disclaims any liability associated with any actions that occur from your involvement in the service.
Within the limits permissible by law, you fully acknowledge and agree that The DNA Plan shall NOT be liable for any damages, at all, resulting from:
-your use of the Services;
– your inability to use the Services;
– any action acted upon information obtained from the Services;
– the cost of procurement from any goods, data, services or information obtained or bought through or from our Services;
– being denied access to data.
Any claim or cause of action from or related to the Services or the T&Cs must be filed within one (1) year after the claim or the cause of action arises.
Communications may be through email or postal mail. The DNA Plan might also give notices of changes to its T&Cs or other matters by sending notices or links to notices to you or through the Services. Official notices relating to The DNA Plan’s T&Cs, including termination notices, must be emailed to [email protected] Any notices that you provide without compliance with what is seen in this section will have no legal effect.
The DNA Plan is able to make amendments to the T&Cs as and when required. When these amendments are made, The DNA Plan will make a new T&Cs copy that will be available on its website www.dnaplan.co.uk. Any new terms will be available from or through the Services.
You acknowledge and accept that if you use the Services after the date the T&Cs were changed, The DNA Plan will consider your use as an agreement of the updated T&Cs.
If you violate any of the T&Cs and/or The DNA Plan has suspicions that you violated the terms of these T&Cs, The DNA Plan has the right to suspend or terminate your registration and refuse future or current use of the Services.
Failure from The DNA Plan to enforce any right or provision form the T&Cs should not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any T&Cs provision is found by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, the parties will agree that the court should endeavour to give effect to the party’s intentions as they are reflected in the provision, and the other T&C provisions shall remain in full force and effect.
The laws of England and Wales shall apply to any (contractual or non-contractual) disputes or claims in connection with the Services or the T&Cs.
If you live in England, you can bring legal proceedings in respect of the Services or the T&Cs in the English courts. If you live anywhere else, you can bring legal proceedings in respect of the Services or the T&Cs in either your local courts or the English courts.
A printed version of this agreement and any electronic notice shall be admissible in judicial or administrative proceedings to the same extent as similar conditions in other documents that are originated and maintained in printed form.